JR Hamamatsu Station is the station for the Tokaido Shinkansen and the Tokaido Main Line. Shin-Hamamatsu Station, a five minute walk from JR Hamamatsu Station, is the station for the Enshu Railway, fondly known as the Akaden here.
JR Tokaido Shinkansen Line (Bullet train)
The Tokaido Shinkansen runs between Tokyo and Hakata. There are three different train types: the "Nozomi," the "Hikari," and the "Kodama." The Kodama stops at each station, the Hikari skips some stations, and the Nozomi stops at the least number of stations (see the table below.) All three train types have reserved and non-reserved seating. The cost for a reserved seat is slightly more expensive on the Nozomi. Non-reserved seats cost the same on all three train types. If you travel by the Hikari, it takes about 1 hour and 20 minutes to travel from Hamamatsu to Tokyo and about 1 hour and 30 minutes to travel from Hamamatsu to Osaka.Central Japan Railway Website http://english.jr-central.co.jp
JR Tokaido Main Line
The Tokaido Main Line is the conventional rail line connecting Kobe with Tokyo. The Shinkansen runs approximately parallel, but the two rail lines follow different routes. Like Hamamatsu Station, the main Shinkansen stations are all located alongside the Tokaido Main Line. The Tokaido Main Line is a convenient line to take when traveling within the suburbs of Hamamatsu.
Central Japan Railway Website http://english.jr-central.co.jp/
Hamamatsu Station http://www.inhamamatsu.com/info/hamamatsu-station-the-center-of-town.php
Entetsu Railway Line (Aka-den)
Train nicknamed the "Akaden" (the "red train") Shin Hamamatsu Station.
The Enshu Railway Line has 18 stations in total, and it connects Shin Hamamatsu Station with Nishi-Kajima Station.
Entetsu Railway Line Website http://www.entetsu.co.jp/tetsudou/ (Japanese)
Entetsu buses travel radial routes around Hamamatsu Station.
Entetsu Bus Website http://bus.entetsu.co.jp/index.html (Japanese)
The Kururu bus costs just 200 yen and travels a loop circuit around the city. (unlimited rides only on that day)
Kururu bus Website http://bus.entetsu.co.jp/service/kururu/index.html (Japanese)
You can catch taxis from taxi stands located at stations and at the airport. You can also hail a vacant taxi (indicated by a display) while it is driving down a road. Normally, the rear left door opens and closes automatically for taxis in Japan. This means you do not need to open or close the door when getting in or out of the taxi. If you need to sit in the front passenger seat, however, you will need to operate the door manually. Wearing seatbelts is compulsory when riding in a taxi.
Depending on the taxi company, taxis are different colors.
Major taxi companies
Entetsu Taxi Website http://www.entetsu.co.jp/taxi/ (Japanese)
Hikari Taxi Website http://www.hikaritaxi.com/ (Japanese)
Star Taxi Website http://www.star-taxi.com/index.html (Japanese)